When you stand in front of the pyramids in Egypt not only those at the Giza plateau, you can only admire them and realize that they are the most magnificent man made structure. It is recognized that the pyramids were only built in wealthy times of the Egyptian history. It started since the Old Kingdom to the close of the Ptolemaic period in the fourth century AD, the peak of pyramid building began with the late third dynasty and continued until roughly the sixth ( 2325 BC ). More than 4,000 years later, the Egyptian Pyramids still retain much of their majesty, providing a glimpse into the country’s rich and glorious past.
Who Built The Pyramids?
It is definitely legitimate to believe for a second that Aliens might be behind the construction of the Great Pyramids, particularly when there is no clear known written records or relief detailing how the pyramids were constructed. And even for those who thought they knew like the ancient Greek historian Herodotus who wrote that such monuments required a labor of 100,000 slave men was even wrong. But to cast out these arguments, there is nonetheless abundant archaeological evidence indicating that the Egyptians themselves were responsible for their building. Discovery of a town for workers to the south of the Giza plateau has offered some answers indicating that there was a permanent group of skilled craftsmen and builders who were supplemented by seasonal crews of approximately 2,000 conscripted peasants who worked on the Giza pyramids during the time of year when the Nile River flooded much of the land nearby. So to answer your question the pyramids were built by skillful craftsmen it was basically a knowledge that was passed from generation to another till the construction of the pyramids reached its zenith.
How the Egyptian Pyramids were built ?
While most of the stone blocks were quarried near the pyramids, any finer stone that was quarried from further away was transported via the Nile River by boat. It seems wooden sledges were used to transport the blocks over land as a 4.2 meter long sledge was found near the pyramid of Senwosret I. Also wall painting from the tomb of Djehutihotep (1900 BC) shows a large statue being transported by a sledge. These sledges were drawn by oxen and men, since a number of tombs and temple wall paintings depict the transportation of stones by water and by sledges that are drawn by men or oxen. Water was used as a lubricant for the ground to make it easier to pull the sledges. A wall painting from the tomb of Djehutihotep shows a large statue being transported by a sledge with a person on the front of the sledge pouring out water to wet the sand, reducing friction. It is clear that transporting large amounts of stone was well within the ancient Egyptians’ capabilities. As for how they pieced these blocks together to create this complex structure without modern machines, multiple theories exist, but the prevalent one is centered around ramps.
The Early Pyramids in Egypt
From the beginning of the Dynastic Era (2950 BC), royal tombs were carved into rock and covered with flat-roofed rectangular structures known as “mastabas,” which were precursors to the pyramids. The oldest known pyramid in Egypt was built around 2630 BC at Saqqara, for the third dynasty’s King Djoser. Known as the Step Pyramid, it began as a traditional mastaba but grew into something much more ambitious. As the story goes, the pyramid’s architect was Imhotep, a priest and healer who some 1,400 years later would be deified as the patron saint of scribes and physicians. Over the course of Djoser’s nearly 20-year reign, pyramid builders assembled six stepped layers of stone (as opposed to mud-brick, like most earlier tombs) that eventually reached a height of 62 meters; it was the tallest building of its time. The Step Pyramid was surrounded by a complex of courtyards, temples and shrines where Djoser could enjoy his afterlife.
After Djoser, the stepped pyramid became the norm for royal burials, although none of those planned by his dynastic successors were completed (probably due to their relatively short reigns). The earliest tomb constructed as a “true” (smooth-sided, not stepped) pyramid was the Red Pyramid at Dahshur, one of three burial structures built for the first king of the fourth dynasty, Sneferu (2613-2589 BC) It was named for the color of the limestone blocks used to construct the pyramid’s core.
Why did Egyptians build Pyramids ?
The Egyptians believed in the afterlife and in the eternity of the soul. According to their belief, the soul leaves the body briefly after death and it returns back once the body is buried. The mummification was done to let the souls return to their bodies effortlessly and remain there forever. The pyramids were built on a grand scale as it is the resting place of Pharaohs, where they would live eternally. Therefore the tombs were built solidly to endure the test of time and to last forever.
The Pharaoh’s death is tied to the movement of the Sun and the legend of Horus and Osiris. When the Pharaoh is alive, he represents Osiris and when he dies, his life retreats to the other world just like the sun disappears at the dusk. The next day, Pharaoh’s successor would raise the Sun, in the image of his father. This was another reason for the Pharaoh’s body to be protected in the pyramids, to avoid cosmic disturbances.
What can be found inside the Pyramids ?
Deep inside the pyramids lies the Pharaoh’s burial chamber which would be filled with treasure and items for the Pharaoh to use in the afterlife. The walls were often covered with carvings and paintings. Near the Pharaoh’s chamber would be other rooms where family members and servants were buried. There were often small rooms that acted as temples and larger rooms for storage. Sometimes fake burial chambers or passages would be used to try and trick grave robbers which explains why some newly discovered rooms were empty. Because there was such a valuable treasure buried within the pyramid, grave robbers would try to break in and steal the treasures and despite the Egyptian’s efforts, nearly all of the pyramids were robbed of their treasures by 1,000 BC.